Chapter #33: Identifications
Wife and Cousin of FDR, most active and first first lady
in charge of Works Progress Administration,
First Female secretary of labour
Decidedly Anti New Deal
Advocated for sharing of wealth, 5,000 to each family
In support of giving 200 a month to elderly people
Secretary of Interior and Director of PWA
Alfred M. Landon
Challenger of FDR, though New Deal was too extreme
FDR’s group of close advisors
The three R's
Relief, Recovery, Reform
National Labor Relation Board
Founded by NLRA which allows peaceful protest
Congress of Industrial Organizations
Organized by John Lewis to produce organized strikes
Organization of conservative democrats to oppose FDR.
Plan by FDR to bring less conservative judges to supreme court
Chapter #33 Guided Reading Questions
FDR: A Politician in a Wheelchair
Know: Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Eleanor Roosevelt
1 What kind of man was FDR?
A man made strong from his debilitating condition and with a golden speaking voice. When he was Governor of NY he would always look out for the common people
Presidential Hopefuls of 1932
2. What was Roosevelt's campaign message in the 1932 election?
Recover, Relieve, Reform, Don’t overlook the forgotten man, he would balance the budgets of Hoover.
The Humiliation of Hoover in 1932
3. What were the immediate results of Roosevelt's victory?
The transition of Black Voters from the Republican Party to the Democratic.
FDR and the Three R's: Relief, Recovery, Reform
Know: New Deal, Banking Holiday, Hundred Days, Three R's,
4. Describe the New Deal.
Roosevelt began his term with the hundred days congress in which he gave government extraordinary blank check powers as well as embranced many progressive ideas such as insurance for old, minimum wage and conservation
Roosevelt Manages the Money
Know: Fireside Chats, Glass-Steagall Banking Reform Act, Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, Managed Currency
5. What were the key aspects of FDR's monetary policy?
FDR passed the Emergency Banking Relief Act which gave him power to regulate banks, he then passed the Glass-Stegall Banking reform act which created the FDIC insuring banks with up to 5,000 for each person. FDR aimed for inflation.
Creating Jobs for the Jobless
Know: Pump Priming, CCC, FERA, Harry Hopkins, AAA, HOLC, CWA
6. Explain the difference between New Deal agencies and what radical critics wanted the government to do.
CCC- Civilian COnservvation CORps- Jops to 3 million
FERA- Fedreal Emergency Relief Act and Administration- 3 billion 3 direct relief and for civil works projects
CWA-Civilian Works Administration- Used to provided emergency jobs during winter, branch of Fera
AAA- Agricultural Adjustment Act- dollars to help meet morgages
HOLC- Home owners Loan Corporation- money to help people pay for homes
A Day for Every Demagogue
Know: Father Charles Coughlin, Huey Long, Dr. Francis E. Townsend, WPA
7. List other historical demagogues.
Coughlin- Anti New Deal
Long- 5,000 to every family
Townsend- Pro Old People 200 monthly pay
WPA- Works Public Administration gave employment
New Visibility for Women
Know: Frances Perkins, Mary McLeod Bethune, Ruth Benedict, Margaret Mead, Pearl Buck
8. Explain the factors that made it possible for these women to gain fame.
Perkins- first female secretary of labor
Bethune- advisor to FDR and founded school
Buck- novel about peasant life in china
Helping Industry and Labor
Know: NRA, Sick Chicken Decision, PWA, Harold Ickes
9. How did the NRA attempt to restore industry?
NRA wanted to restore industry by lowering the number of hours of a shift to increase jobs
Schetcher Sick Chicken Decision made it so that the president could not have legislative powers
Paying Farmers Not to Farm
10. How did the federal government attempt to help farmers?
By telling/paying them not to farm, The Agricultural Adjustment Administration told farmers to work less and to set their goods at parity prices, original prices to up purchasing power
Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment cut down on land use
Dust Bowls and Black Blizzards
Know: Dust Bowl, Okies and Arkies, The Grapes of Wrath, Indian Reorganization Act
11. How did nature cause problems for some farmers on the plains?
The great Dust Bowl made the area infertile causing the people to flee to California, Frazier-Lemke Farm Bankruptcy Act temporarily suspended mortgage foreclosure to counter this
Makers of America: The Dust Bowl Migrants
Know: San Joaquin Valley, Farm Security Administration, Okievilles
12. In what ways were things better in California? In what ways were they the same?
Better in that the land was useable, bad in that poverty was the same.
Battling Bankers and Big Business
Know: Federal Securities Act, SEC
13. "Reformist New Dealers were determined from the outset to curb the `money changers....'" Explain.
Congress passed the "Truth in Securities Act" (Federal Securities Act), requiring promoters to transmit to the investor sworn information, as well as Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). It was designed as a watchdog administrative agency.
The TVA Harnesses the Tennessee River
Know: TVA, Creeping Socialism
14. What arguments were used for and against the TVA project?
Good, full employment, cheap power, reforestation, flood control
Bad, looks like socialism
Housing Reform and Social Security
Know: FHA, Social Security
15. How did the FHA and Social Security attempt to help some of society's least fortunate?
USHA- lend money for cheap construction
Socia security- insurance
A New Deal for Labor
Know: Wagner Act, National Labor Relations Board, CIO, John L. Lewis, Sit-down Strike
16. How did labor respond to the improvement of conditions brought about by the New Deal?
Wagner Act produced the NLRB which served to ensure protest rights. CIO formed by Lewis to organize strikes
Landon Challenges "the Champ”
Know: Alfred Landon, American Liberty League
17. What was the significance of the 1936 election?
FDR beat Ladon with south blacks urbanites and poor
Nine Old Men on the Supreme Bench
18. Why did Roosevelt ask Congress for a bill that would allow him to add justices to the Supreme Court?
To balance out the existing Hoover ultraconservatives
The Court Changes Course
Know: Court Packing, Hugo Black
19. What were the consequences of FDR's attempt to pack the Court?
Justice Roberts voted liberal, eventually FDR appointed all 9 first of whom was Hugo Black, FDR however lost much political goodwill
The Twilight of the New Deal
Know: Roosevelt Recession, John Maynard Keynes, Hatch Act
20. Assess the successfulness of FDR in his second term.
Economy downturn had to be dealt with, Keyenian economics, planned deficit spending used. Reorgaizational Act gave FDR admin powers. Hatch act banned all political spending
New Deal or Raw Deal?
21. What criticism of the New Deal seems most fair to you? Least fair?
Most fair, that it shot up the debt
Least fair, that it should not have happened
Varying Viewpoints: How Radical Was the New Deal
Know: Arthur Schlesinger Jr., Carl Degler, Constraints School of Historians, New Deal Coalition
22. What did William Leuechtenburg mean when he called the New Deal a "half-way revolution?" (Your answer should focus more on the information before this term than on the information after it.)
Revolutions ususally are in factor of one extreme or another, the new deal was about reform not revolution and rooselvet wasn’t interested in throwing out the old system, just making amendments to the current
Agricultural Adjustment Administration
Civilian Conservation Corps
Civil Works Administration
Federal Emergency Relief Administration
Federal Housing Administration
Farm Security Administration
Home Owners Loan Corporation
National Recovery Administration
National Youth Administration
Public Works Administration
Rural Electrification Administration
Social Security Administration
Tennessee Valley Authority
Work Projects (Progress) Administration